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Author Topic: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide  (Read 34922 times)

Afloden

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Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« on: July 17, 2008, 01:43:50 AM »
Hello,

 Here it is finally. A pictoral guide to the species of Polygonatum, or at least those that I grow that have flowered, been dissected, and put under the dissecting scope to look at the nasty bits.

 I'll do it alphabetically starting with an eastern North American native, biflorum in its many guises that now include a  puzzle of synonomy with a plasticity of variation that baffles me and obviously several other people who have written papers on it. It seems the current consensus, circa 1940 something, (besides researchers not finding any consistent morphology that would lead one to more than one species) is that ploidy levels are the cause of the variation.

 The pictures start with some from Kansas. These are somewhat uniform, but two are distinct in "feel" and would be included under the name commutatum, yet is now P.b.commutatum. The first five are all of one clone that was native on the property where I once gardened.

 The next is another from Kansas from a woodlot a few miles away that was somewhat smaller altogether with less flowers. And the one immediately following is also from there, but is a dwarf that has yet to reach larger than 40cm in height and has pencil thick rhizomes with short internodes.

 The last are all from Tennessee taken in situ except for the rhizome shot. These are large plants for the most part with stems easily to six feet with leaves 25x15cm.

 Aaron
 
P.biflorum198.JPG
P.biflorum 240.JPG
 P.biflorum 249.JPG
 P.biflorum 424.JPG
 Polygonatum_biflorum_JOPCO-KS_rhizome.JPG
 P.biflorum066.JPG
 Polygonatum_biflorum_thin-leaved_KS.JPG
 Polygonatum_biflorum_BlountCo_LittleRiverRd_TN.jpg
 Polygonatum_biflorum_GIANT_KnoxCo_TN.jpg
 Polygonatum_biflorum_GIANT_rhizome_KnoxCo_TN.jpg


 
« Last Edit: July 21, 2008, 05:26:27 PM by Maggi Young »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US

Afloden

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #1 on: July 17, 2008, 01:57:30 AM »
Here is one more from TN, and then..
 
 The TN plant here is fairly typical with a few flowers per leaf axil and not too tall.
 
 I have many more, but not all have photographs. I spent several hours dissecting about twenty clones of P.biflorum and making line-drawings and taking measurements. So much variation even within a population!

 The next four are Polygonatum cryptanthum. Not much to say about this one. It is in the series Bracteata, a somewhat closely related group of plants. This one has cinnamon-like fragrant flowers.

 Then several Polygonatum cyrtonema. It is a nice species and not what people typically sell as cyrtonema, but a razor blade and a dissecting scope says otherwise. The filament details are very important! I do believe P.arisanense is a different species from what I have seen, but I do not grow that plant yet. This almost looks evergreen with thick textured leaves. It does not offset too frequently for me with most plants still only producing one stem each season, some after 8 years.

 Aaron

Polygonatum_biflorum_Mt-Road_CampbellCo.jpg
 Polygonatum_cryptanthum243.JPG
 Polygonatum_cryptanthum 247.JPG
 Polygonatum_cryptanthum_DSCN0042.JPG
  Polygonatum_cyrtonema__Purpleleaf_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_cyrtonema_CY_S-74_3.JPG
 Polygonatum_cyrtonema_CY_S-74_13.JPG
 Polygonatum_cyrtonema_CY_S-74_14.JPG
 Polygonatum_cyrtonema_PURPLE_peduncle.jpg
 
« Last Edit: May 24, 2010, 11:45:09 AM by Afloden »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US

Afloden

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #2 on: July 17, 2008, 02:13:52 AM »
Continuing...

 Here are some of Polygonatum falcatum which happens to be a really nice Japanese species. The first are the silver striped selection offered by Asiatica.

 The next (mixed with silver striped form) is one that Hinkley (Heronswood) offered a many years ago as said species and then questioned the identity thinking it may in fact be stenanthum or macranthum. I have read elsewhere that stenanthum is the incorrect name for macranthum. Which is correct? I don't know yet, but I do know that what Heronswood sold is falcatum because the filaments are identical to those in a paper on the filaments of the Japanese species.

 The next are Polygonatum filipes. This is a superb species from China with short stems rarely more than 20cm long, but most of that is parallel to the ground. The abaxial leaf surface is densely pubescent. The nicest part of the plant is the extremely long pedicels with an abundance of white tubular flowers. It has fragrance similar to that of odoratum, if I remember correctly.

  Polygonatum_falcatum_ SilverStripe_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_falcatum_DJHC.jpg
 Polygonatum_falcatum_HC970662_1.JPG
 Polygonatum_falcatum_HC970662_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_falcatum_HC970662_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_filipes_Blom3.JPG
 Polygonatum_filipes_habit3.jpg
 Polygonatum_filipes_S-69CY_11.JPG
 Polygonatum_filipes_S-69CY_3.JPG
 Polygonatum_filipes_S-69CY_5.JPG


« Last Edit: July 21, 2008, 05:29:32 PM by Maggi Young »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US

Afloden

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #3 on: July 17, 2008, 02:23:58 AM »
Here is Polygonatum hirtum in a few differing forms.

 The dwarf really is dwarf and vigorous also. I thought it may be another closely related species that had be synonomized, but it was completely identical to my other P. hirtum which all fit the key nicely.

 The hirtum as obovatum may be distinct. It did not flower this spring when I was dissecting so maybe next year.

 The second group of five are Polygonatum humile, another of the commonly available species. It has cinnamon fragrant flowers and spreads quite vigorously. The last two are of a humile from Jilin Province collection by a friend. They may look like humile, but the rhizomes are distinct in being very thin, 1-3mm, with long internodes and have the strange habit of coming out of the ground and then arching back into the ground. I got no flowers this spring after my transplant from Kansas to Tennessee so maybe next year I can confirm the identification.

Polygonatum_hirtum_ Dwarf_3.JPG
 Polygonatum_hirtum114.JPG
 Polygonatum_hirtum_ Dwarf_4.JPG
 Polygonatum_hirtum_Bush_as-obovatum_1.JPG
 Polygonatum_hirtum_Bush_as-obovatum_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_humile2.JPG
 Polygonatum_humile3.JPG
 Polygonatum_humile.JPG
 Polygonatum_humile_ Jilin_Waddick.JPG
 Polygonatum_humile_Jilin_2008.jpg




 
« Last Edit: July 21, 2008, 05:31:12 PM by Maggi Young »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US

Afloden

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #4 on: July 17, 2008, 02:35:08 AM »
Continuing again...

 The first is that hideous variegated form of P.hybridum.

 Followed by two of P.inflatum - another of the bracted species. This one is Cheju Giant as offered by Plant Delights. Not sure what is giant about it, but I guess I'll give it more time.

 Then several of the beautiful Polygonatum kingianum in the pink and orange forms. The only bad thing about this species is that it needs something to climb on to stay upright. Otherwise you end up with a mass of stems mounded up on the ground all connected to one another by way of the cirrhose leaf tips. And another year of the "pink" "kingianum" that is white flowered in 2010!

Polygonatum_hybridum_'Barkers'_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_inflatum_ChejuGiant.jpg
 Polygonatum_inflatum_ChejuGiant_habit.jpg
 Polygonatum_kingianum_flowers.jpg
 Polygonatum_kingianum_habit.jpg
 Polygonatum_kingianum_lf-juv-stem2.jpg
 Polygonatum_kingianum_newshoot.jpg
 Polygonatum_kingianum_pink-yellow.jpg



 

« Last Edit: May 24, 2010, 11:47:46 AM by Afloden »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US

Afloden

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #5 on: July 17, 2008, 02:55:59 AM »
And the last for the night...

 The first few are lasianthum from Japan and Korea. This is really nice species, but can run around quite a lot with its long rhizomes. The flowers are held out under the leaves on long pedicels (native to rainy areas?) and are fairly large and fragrant like odoratum.

 followed by a picture of the flowers of macropodum. Sorry no stem or leaves. I just got this from a friend and the plant looked awful, but the flowers continued. This is what I believe most offer as cyrtonema, but since I have yet verify it I cannot say for sure. The flowers are fragrant, but I forget what like. It was very sweet if I remember right. It is a large plant to 1m.

 The next is the common multiflorum, and its mutant "Multifide" which may be "ramosum." Forms like this have been reported several times in pubescens and biflorum, but ended up as herbarium specimens.

 Then there are a few of P. nodosum. This is another small plant, <20cm, that grows mostly parallel to the ground. It has large flowers, 4cm, for its size. No fragrance that I can sense. It makes a nice low plant with really attractive leaves when not eaten by slugs.

Polygonatum_lasianthum_HC970391_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_lasianthum_HC970391_3.JPG
 Polygonatum_lasianthum_HC.JPG
 Polygonatum_macropodum_CY.jpg
 Polygonatum_multiflorum4.JPG
 Polygonatum_Mulitifide_2008_DSCN0052.JPG
 Polygonatum_nodosum_CY_habit.jpg
 Polygonatum_nodosum_flower.jpg


 
« Last Edit: July 21, 2008, 05:34:44 PM by Maggi Young »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US

fermides

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #6 on: July 17, 2008, 04:22:07 AM »
Aaron,
excellent work!
Thank you for your time and effort!
cheers
fermi
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Victoria, Australia

Brian Ellis

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #7 on: July 17, 2008, 09:24:16 AM »
A most interesting and informative thread Aaron, the Polygonatum Kingianum are most attractive, I must look out for them. I look forward to seeing more?  :)
Brian Ellis, Brooke, Norfolk UK. altitude 30m Mintemp -8C

Giles

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #8 on: July 17, 2008, 10:17:00 AM »
Opened my eyes!!!
Thankyou, Giles
South Northants.

Carlo

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #9 on: July 17, 2008, 11:34:38 AM »
Great resource Aaron...how about we do more of this everybody?
Carlo A. Balistrieri
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Maggi Young

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #10 on: July 17, 2008, 11:43:49 AM »
Aaron! Fantastic, just the thing which makes this forum so good! Many thanks, indeed. 8) :-*
Margaret Young in Aberdeen, North East Scotland Zone 7 -ish!

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Paul T

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #11 on: July 17, 2008, 12:45:14 PM »
Aaron,

So many species!!  I had no idea there were so many of the genus, particularly as I know there are others that you haven't shown there yet.  Pretty much everything there has better flowering than I've ever seen in the genus, and some of the colours. :o  Beautiful!!  :D

Thanks so much for putting these up in one place.  Hopefully it can be added to an become a great reference for future use by all.  Great job!!  8)
Cheers.

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arisaema

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #12 on: July 17, 2008, 08:39:29 PM »
Yes, thank you Aaron, this is an excellent resource!

Lvandelft

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #13 on: July 17, 2008, 09:42:36 PM »
Thank you Aaron, this is just what is needing when looking up some information of
some species, when doubts arise what grows in the garden.
Better than a book!  8) And very good informative pictures.
Luit van Delft, right in the heart of the beautiful flowerbulb district, Noordwijkerhout, Holland.

Afloden

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Re: Polygonatum, A pictoral guide
« Reply #14 on: July 18, 2008, 01:41:25 AM »
Thank you. I am glad what pictures I have supplied can help someone identify things. I always think I take more pictures, but once I get them on the computer I see that I was only thinking of taking "that" picture.

 Here are some more.
 
 The first is one from a friend who collected it in China. It is distinct from the others, but I have no flower photos.

 The next three are a Polygonatum odoratum from Chen Yi under S-66. This has terete branching rhizomes that are about 1-2cm thick and very spreading. It rarely has more than 2 flowers per axil and is non-fragrant. Note the flair of the perianth lobes and the decurrent nature of the leaf attachment point. This provides the angled stem ridges to the variable "odoratum" group. This particular one has an undulate attachment at the leaf and stem and is very distinct from all others that I grow.

 
 The next is P.odoratum Flore Pleno which I assume is a European form of odoratum. Anyone know the origin besides that it has been around a long time.

 And then two photos of prattii. These are from a CBE collection. Prattii is nice, small, durable in this form, with faintly fragrant flowers.
 
Polygonatum_odoratum_ China_Waddick_as-D.aspera_.JPG
 Polygonatum_odoratum_CYS-66.JPG
 Polygonatum_odoratum_CYS-66_flower_2008.jpg
 Polygonatum_odoratum_CYS-66_stem_2008.JPG
 Polygonatum_odoratum_'FlorePleno'_2.JPG
 Polygonatum_prattii_flower_CBE_2008.jpg
 Polygonatum_prattii_habit2_CBE_2008.jpg


 
« Last Edit: July 21, 2008, 05:37:20 PM by Maggi Young »
Tennessee, Smokey Mountains, US